|by L. Robert Kohls
Americans would have a difficult time telling you, specifically, what the values are that
Americans live by. They have never given the matter much thought.
xxx Even if Americans
had considered this question, they would probably, in the end, decide not to answer in
terms of a definitive list of values. The reason for this decision is itself one very
American valuetheir belief that every individual is so unique that the same list of
values could never be applied to all, or even most, of their fellow citizens.
xxx Although Americans
may think of themselves as being more varied and unpredictable than they actually are, it
is significant that they think they are. Americans tend to think they have been only
slightly influenced by family, church or schools. In the end, each believes, "I
personally chose which values I want to live my own life by."
xxx Despite this
self-evaluation, a foreign anthropologist could observe Americans and produce a list of
common values that would fit most Americans. The list of typically American values would
stand in sharp contrast to the values commonly held by the people of many other countries.
xxx We, the staff of
the Washington International Center, have been introducing thousands of international
visitors to life in the United States for more than a third of a century. This has caused
us to try to look at Americans through the eyes of our visitors. We feel confident that
the values listed here describe most (but not all) Americans.
xxx Furthermore, we
can say that if the foreign visitor really understood how deeply ingrained these 13 values
are in Americans, he or she would then be able to understand 95% of American
actionsaction that might otherwise appear strange or unbelievable when evaluated
from the perspective of the foreigners own society and its values.
xxx The different
behaviors of a people or a culture make sense only when seen through the basic beliefs,
assumptions and values of that particular group. When you encounter an action, or hear a
statement in the United States that surprises you, try to see it as an expression of one
or more of the values listed here. For example, when you ask Americans for directions to
get to a particular address in their own city, they may explain, in great detail, how you
can get there on your own, but may never even consider walking two city blocks with you to
lead you to the place. Some foreign visitors have interpreted this sort of action as
showing Americans "unfriendliness." We would suggest, instead, that the
self-help concept (value number 6 on our list), is so strong in Americans that they firmly
believe that no adult would ever want, even temporarily, to be dependent on another. Also,
their future orientation (value 8) makes Americans think it is better to prepare you to
find other addresses on your own in the future.
xxx Before proceeding
to the list itself, we should also point out that Americans see all of these values as
very positive ones. They are not aware, for example, that the people in many Third World
countries view change (value 2) as negative or threatening. In fact, all 13 of these
American values are judged by many of the words citizens as negative and
undesirable. Therefore, it is not enough simply to familiarize yourself with these values.
You must also, so far as possible, consider them without the negative or derogatory
connotation that they might have for you, based on your own experience and cultural
xxx It is important to
state emphatically that our purpose in providing you with this list of the most important
American values is not to convert you, the foreign visitor, to our values. We
couldnt achieve that goal even if we wanted to, and we dont want to. We simply
want to help you understand the Americans with whom you will be relatingfrom their
own value system rather that from yours.
L. Robert Kohls, Executive Director
The Washington International Center
1. PERSONAL CONTROL OVER THE ENVIRONMENT
xxx Americans no
longer believe in the power of Fate, and they have come to look at people who do as being
backward, primitive, or hopelessly na´ve. To be call "fatalistic" is one of the
worst criticisms one can receive in the American context; to an American, it means one is
superstitious and lazy, unwilling to take any initiative in bringing about improvement.
xxx In the United
States, people consider it normal and right that Man should control Nature, rather than
the other way around. More specifically, people believe every single individual should
have control over whatever in the environment might potentially affect him or her. The
problems of ones life are not seen as having resulted from bad luck as much as
having come from ones laziness in pursuing a better life. Furthermore, it is
considered normal that anyone should look out for his or her own self-interests first and
xxx Most Americans
find it impossible to accept that there are some things that lie beyond the power of
humans to achieve. And Americans have literally gone to the moon, because they refused to
accept earthly limitations.
xxx Americans seem to
be challenged, even compelled, to do, by one means or another (and often at great cost)
what seven-eighths of the world is certain cannot be done.
xxx In the
American mind, change is seen as an indisputably good condition. Change is strongly linked
to development, improvement, progress, and growth. Many older, more traditional cultures
consider change as a disruptive, destructive force, to be avoided if at all possible.
Instead of change, such societies value stability, continuity, tradition, and a rich and
ancient heritagenone of which are valued very much in the United States.
xxx These first two
valuesthe belief that we can do anything and the belief that any change is
goodtogether with an American belief in the virtue of hard work and the belief that
each individual has a responsibility to do the best he or she can do have helped Americans
achieve some great accomplishments. So whether these beliefs are true is really
irrelevant; what is important is that Americans have considered them to be true and have
acted as if they were, thus, in effect, causing them to happen.
3. TIME AND ITS CONTROL
xxx Time is,
for the average American, of utmost importance. To the foreign visitor, Americans seem to
be more concerned with getting things accomplished on time (according to a predetermined
schedule) than they are with developing deep interpersonal relations. Schedules, for the
American, are meant to be planned and then followed in the smallest detail.
xxx It may seem to you
that most Americans are completely controlled by the little machines they wear on their
wrists, cutting their discussions off abruptly to make it to their next appointment on
language is filled with references to time, giving a clear indication of how much it is
valued. Time is something to be "on," to be "kept,"
"filled," "saved," "used," "spent,"
"wasted," "lost," "gained," "planned,"
"given," "made the most of," even "killed."
xxx The international
visitor soon learns that it is considered very rude to be lateeven by 10
minutesfor an appointment in the United States. (Whenever it is absolutely
impossible to be on time, you should phone ahead and tell the person you have been
unavoidably detained and will be a half houror whateverlate.)
xxx Time is so valued
in America, because by considering time to be important one can clearly accomplish more
that if one "wastes" time and does not keep busy. This philosophy has proven its
worth. It has enabled Americans to be extremely productive, and productivity itself is
highly valued in the United States. Many American proverbs stress the value in guarding
our time, using it wisely, setting and working toward specific goals, and even expending
our time and energy today so that the fruits of our labor may be enjoyed at a later time.
(This latter concept is called "delayed gratification.")
Equality is, for Americans, one of their most cherished values. This concept is
so important for Americans that they have even given it a religious basis. They say all
people have been "created equal." Most Americans believe that God views all
humans alike without regard to intelligence, physical condition or economic status. In
secular terms this belief is translated into the assertion that all people have an equal
opportunity to succeed in life. Americans differ in opinion about how to make this ideal
into a reality. Yet virtually all agree that equality is an important civic and social
xxx The equality
concept often makes Americans seem strange to foreign visitors. Seven-eighths of the world
feels quite differently. To them, rank and status and authority are seen as much more
desirable considerationseven if they personally happen to find themselves near the
bottom of the social order. Class and authority seem to give people in those other
societies a sense of security and certainty. People outside the United States consider it
reassuring to know, from birth, who they are and where they fit into the complex system
xxx Many highly-placed
foreign visitors to the United States are insulted by the way they are treated by service
personnel (such as waiters in restaurants, clerks in stores, taxi drivers, etc.).
Americans have an aversion to treating people of high position in a deferential manner,
and, conversely often treat lower class people as if they were very important. Newcomers
to the United States should realize that no insult or personal indignity is intended by
this lack of deference to rank or position in society. A foreigner should be prepared to
be considered "just like anybody else" while in the country.
5. INDIVIDUAL AND PRIVACY
individualism that has been developed in the Western world since the Renaissance,
beginning in the late 15th century, has taken its most exaggerated form in 20th century
United States. Here, each individual is seen as completely and marvelously unique, that
is, totally different from all other individuals and, therefore, particularly precious and
xxx Americans think
they are more individualist in their thoughts and actions than, in fact, they are. They
resist being thought of as representatives of a homogenous group, whatever the group. They
may, and do, join groupsin fact many groupsbut somehow believe theyre
just a little different, just a little unique, just a little special, from other members
of the same group. And they tend to leave groups as easily as they enter them.
xxx Privacy, the
ultimate result of individualism is perhaps even more difficult for the foreigner to
comprehend. The word "privacy" does not even exist in many languages. If it
does, it is likely to have a strongly negative connotation, suggesting loneliness or
isolation from the group. In the United States, privacy is not only seen as a very
positive condition, but it is also viewed as a requirement that all humans would find
equally necessary, desirable and satisfying. It is not uncommon for Americans to
sayand believesuch statements as "If I dont have at least half an
hour a day to myself, I will go stark raving mad."
xxx Individualism, as
it exists in the United States, does mean that you will find a much greater variety of
opinions (along with the absolute freedom to express them anywhere and anytime) here. Yet,
in spite of this wide range of personal opinion, almost all Americans will ultimately vote
for one of the two major political parties. That is what was meant by the statement made
earlier that Americans take pride in crediting themselves with claiming more individualism
than, in fact, they really have.
6. SELF-HELP CONTROL
xxx In the United
States, a person can take credit only for what he or she has accomplished by himself or
herself. Americans get no credit whatsoever for having been born into a rich family. (In
the United States, that would be considered "an accident of birth.") Americans
pride themselves in having been born poor and, through their own sacrifice and hard work,
having climbed the difficult ladder of success to whatever level they have
achievedall by themselves. The American social system has, of course, made it
possible for Americans to move, relatively easily, up the social ladder.
xxx Take a look in an
English-language dictionary at the composite words that have "self" as a prefix.
In the average desk dictionary, there will be more than 100 such words, words like
self-confidence, self-conscious, self-control, self-criticism, self-deception,
self-defeating, self-denial, self-discipline, self-esteem, self-expression,
self-importance, self-improvement, self-interest, self-reliance, self-respect,
self-restraint, self-sacrificethe list goes on and on. The equivalent of these words
cannot be found in most other languages. The list is perhaps the best indication of how
seriously Americans take doing things for ones self. The "self-made man or
women" is still very much the ideal in 20th-century America.
7. COMPETITION AND FREE ENTERPRISE
xxx Americans believe
that competition brings out the best in any individual. They assert that it challenges or
forces each person to produce the very best that is humanly possible. Consequently, the
foreign visitor will see competition being fostered in the American home and in the
American classroom, even on the youngest age level. Very young children, for instance, are
encouraged to answer questions for which their classmates do not know the answer.
xxx You may find the
competitive value disagreeable, especially if you come from a society that promotes
cooperation rather than competition. But many U.S. Peace Corps volunteers teaching in
Third World countries found the lack of competitiveness in a classroom situation equally
distressing. They soon learned that what they thought to be one of the universal human
characteristics represented only a peculiarly American (or Western) value.
xxx Americans, valuing
competition, have devised an economic system to go with itfree enterprise. Americans
feel strongly that a highly competitive economy will bring out the best in its people and,
ultimately, that the society that fosters competition will progress most rapidly. If you
look for it, you will see evidence in all areaseven in fields as diverse as
medicine, the arts, education, and sportsthat free enterprise is the approach most
often preferred in America.
8. FUTURE ORIENTATION
xxx Valuing the future
and the improvements Americans are sure the future will bring means that they devalue that
past and are, to a large extent, unconscious of the present. Even a happy present goes
largely unnoticed because, happy as it may be, Americans have traditionally been hopeful
that the future would bring even greater happiness. Almost all energy is directed toward
realizing that better future. At best, the present condition is seen as preparatory to a
latter and greater event, which will eventually culminate in something even more
xxx Since Americans
have been taught (in value 1) to believe that Man, and not Fate, can and should be the one
who controls the environment, this has made them very good at planning and executing
short-term projects. This ability, in turn, has caused Americans to be invited to all
corners of the earth to plan and achieve the miracles that their goal-setting can produce.
xxx If you come from a
culture such as those in the traditional Moslem world, where talking about or actively
planning the future is felt to be a futile, even sinful, activity, you will have not only
philosophical problems with this very American characteristic but religious objections as
well. Yet it is something you will have to learn to live with, for all around you
Americans will be looking toward the future and what it will bring.
9. ACTION/WORK ORIENTATION
just stand there," goes a typical bit of American advice, "do something!"
This expression is normally used in a crisis situation, yet, in a sense, it describes most
Americans entire waking life, where actionany actionis seen to be
superior to inaction.
routinely plan and schedule an extremely active day. Any relaxation must be limited in
time, pre-planned, and aimed at "recreating" their ability to work harder and
more productively once the recreation is over. Americans believe leisure activities should
assume a relatively small portion of ones total life. People think that it is
"sinful" to "waste ones time," "to sit around doing
nothing," or just to "daydream."
xxx Such a "no
nonsense" attitude toward life has created many people who have come to be known as
"workaholics," or people who are addicted to their work, who think constantly
about their jobs and who are frustrated if they are kept away from them, even during their
evening hours and weekends.
xxx The workaholic
syndrome, in turn, causes Americans to identify themselves wholly with their professions.
The first question one American will ask another American when meeting for the first time
is related to his or her work: "Where do you work?," or "Who (what company)
are you with?"
xxx And when such a
person finally goes on vacation, even the vacation will be carefully planned, very busy
xxx America may be one
of the few countries in the world where it seems reasonable to speak about the
"dignity of human labor," meaning by that, hard, physical labor. In America,
even corporation presidents will engage in physical labor from time to time and gain,
rather than lose, respect from others for such action.
xxx If you come from a
more formal society, you will likely find Americans to be extremely informal, and will
probably feel that they are even disrespectful of those in authority. Americans are one of
the most informal and casual people in the world, even when compared to their near
relativethe Western European.
xxx As one example of
this informality, American bosses often urge their employees to call them by their first
names and even feel uncomfortable if they are called by the title "Mr." or
xxx Dress is another
area where American informality will be most noticeable, perhaps even shocking. One can go
to a symphony performance, for example, in any large American city nowadays and find some
people in the audience dressed in blue jeans and tieless, short-sleeved shirts.
xxx Informality is also apparent in Americans greetings. The more formal "How
are you?" has largely been replaced with an informal "Hi." This is as
likely to be used to ones superior as to ones best friend.
xxx If you are a
highly placed official in your own country, you will probably, at first, find such
informality to be very unsettling. American, on the other hand, would consider such
informality as a compliment! Certainly it is not intended as an insult and should not be
taken as such.
11. DIRECTNESS, OPENNESS AND HONESTY
xxx Many other
countries have developed subtle, sometimes highly ritualistic, ways of informing other
people of unpleasant information. Americans, however, have always preferred the first
approach. They are likely to be completely honest in delivering their negative
evaluations. If you come from a society that uses the indirect manner of conveying bad
news or uncomplimentary evaluations, you will be shocked at Americans bluntness.
xxx If you come from a
country where saving face is important, be assured that Americans are not trying to make
you lose face with their directness. It is important to realize that an American would
not, in such case, lose face. The burden of adjustment, in all cases while you are in this
country, will be on you. There is no way to soften the blow of such directness and
openness if you are not used to it except to tell you that the rules have changed while
you are here. Indeed, Americans are trying to urge their fellow countrymen to become even
more open and direct. The large number of "assertiveness" training courses that
appeared in the United States in the late 1970s reflects such a commitment.
xxx Americans consider
anything other than the most direct and open approach to be dishonest and insincere and
will quickly lose confidence in and distrust anyone who hints at what is intended rather
than saying it outright.
xxx Anyone who, in the
United States, chooses to use an intermediary to deliver that message will also be
considered manipulative and untrustworthy.
12. PRACTICALITY AND EFFICIENCY
xxx Americans have a
reputation of being an extremely realistic, practical and efficient people. The practical
consideration is likely to be given highest priority in making any important decision in
the United States. Americans pride themselves in not being very philosophically or
theoretically oriented. If Americans would even admit to having a philosophy, it would
probably be that of pragmatism.
xxx Will it make any
money? Will it "pay its own way?" What can I gain from this activity? These are
the kinds of questions that Americans are likely to ask in their practical pursuit, not
such questions as: Is it aesthetically pleasing? Will it be enjoyable?, or Will it advance
the cause of knowledge?
xxx This practical,
pragmatic orientation has caused Americans to contribute more inventions to the world than
any other country in human history. The love of "practicality" has also caused
Americans to view some professions more favorably than others. Management and economics,
for example, are much more popular in the United States than philosophy or anthropology,
law and medicine more valued than the arts.
xxx Another way in
which this favoring of the practical makes itself felt in the United States, is a
belittling of "emotional" and "subjective" evaluations in favor of
"rational" and "objective" assessments. Americans try to avoid being
too sentimental in making their decisions. They judge every situation "on its
merits." The popular American "trail-and-error" approach to problem solving
also reflects the practical. The approach suggests listing several possible solutions to
any given problem, then trying them out, one-by-one, to see which is most effective.
generally consider Americans much more materialistic than Americans are likely to consider
themselves. Americans would like to think that their material objects are just the natural
benefits that always result from hard work and serious intenta reward, they think,
that all people could enjoy were they as industrious and hard-working as Americans.
xxx But by any
standard, Americans are materialistic. This means that they value and collect more
material objects than most people would ever dream of owning. It also means they give
higher priority to obtaining, maintaining and protecting their material objects than they
do in developing and enjoying interpersonal relationships.
xxx The modern
American typically owns:
- one or more color television sets,
- an electric hair dryer,
- an electronic calculator,
- a tape recorder and a record player,
- a clothes-washer and dryer,
- a vacuum cleaner,
- a powered lawn mower (for cutting grass),
- a refrigerator, a stove, and a dishwasher,
- one or more automobiles,
- and a telephone. Many also own a personal computer.
xxx Since Americans
value newness and innovation, they sell or throw away their possessions frequently and
replace them with newer ones. A car may be kept for only two or three years, a house for
five or six before trading it in for another one.
xxx Now that we have
discussed each of these 13 values separately, if all too briefly, let us look at them in
list form (on the left) and then consider them paired with the counterpart values from a
more traditional country (on the right):
|Personal Control over
Time & Its Control
Which list more nearly represents the values of your native
xxx Before leaving
this discussion of the values Americans live by, consider how knowledge of these values
explains many things about Americans.
xxx One can, for
example, see Americas impressive record of scientific and technological achievement
as a natural result of these 13 values.
xxx First of all, it
was necessary to believe (1) these things could be achieved, that Man does not have to
simply sit and wait for Fate to bestow them or not to bestow them, and that Man does have
control over his own environment, if he is willing to take it. Other values that have
contributed to this record of achievement include (2) an expectation of positive results
to come from change (and the acceptance of an ever-faster rate of change as
"normal"); (3) the necessity to schedule and plan ones time; (6) the
self-help concept; (7) competition; (8) future orientation; (9) action work orientation;
(12) practicality; and (13) materialism.
xxx You can do the
same sort of exercise as you consider other aspects of American society and analyze them
to see which of the 13 values described here apply. By using this approach you will soon
begin to understand Americans and their actions. And as you come to understand them, they
will seem less "strange" than they did at first.